Dogs
  

    Findings of dogs

D ogs have accordingly to what is known been at the service of man longer than any other domestic animal. Thus, findings of domesticated dogs which are older than 10 000 years have been made. These findings in the Jaguar cave, as it is called, even show diversity between two kinds of dogs, for that reason the dog must have been subjected to breeding even there, long before these findings. Findings of dogs older than 9500 years exists in Great Britain and in Denmark exists findings older than 9000 years. 8750-year-old clay figures indicates husbandry of dogs in present day Iraq(Jarmo). According to other findings were there dogs in Jericho 8500 years ago, and in Egypt 5500 years ago. In Skatholm, Sweden have a finding-place with 5000 years old relics from dogs.

   Ancestors of the dogs of today

I n spite of all findings it has been difficult to pinpoint a certain, exact historical anchorage of the history of the dog among the hounds. It is known that dogs breed capable offspring with wolf as well as jackal. Because of this, one theory wants to maintain to form the breeding stock with a plain cross between wolf and jackal. On the other hand can wolf and jackal interbreed, and therefore can dogs have evolved unilaterally from wolves or from a siding to wolves, perhaps from a now extinct kind of wild hound. This is the predominant theory today. It is credible that all dogs of today do not descend from a common ancestor, but that they are more so a mishmash of several coincident lines. To deny the possible part of the jackal and the wolfjackal as part-ancestors of the dogs of today would in such cases seem doubtful. At a later stage it is believed that about 5 dogs have functioned as forerunners to the breeds of today.

   History of the dogs

A s far as anyone knows does the dogs of today, among others, originally descend from the miacids, which lived 50 million years ago. However, any evident charactarization does not occur until the emergence of the race of Hesperocyon 35 million years before now. Across the age of miocen Borophaginae evolves at first, and later Canidae. Not until 7 million yeras ago evolved, according to the fossil found in Spain, the first animals from the group of Canis. A precursor to the prairie wolf of today evolved in North America between 4 and 2 million years ago. During the corresponding period in europe is etruscian wolf(Canis etruscus) to be found, which evolved into the wolf of today(Canis lupus) 1 million years ago.

   Dogs - characteristics

D ogs have in similarity to wolves 78 chromosomes.And this in difference to several other hounds, of which some have less than half this number of chromosomes. They have well-developed teeth with visible adjusting towards meat diet. None the less does the domestic dog benefit from considerable vegetarian elements in the diet, although one cannot be indiscriminate in the choice of this food. Dogs like to sleep a lot and they are equipped with an urge to keep themselves somewhat clean. Wolves and primary wolf hybrids distinguishes themselves from dogs by showing greater suspicion towards non-pack members and towards humans in general, as well. Wolves cannot be trained in the same way as dogs, either. Changes that are typical of inbreeding noticeable in certain dogs are condrodystrophy, shortened long bones, defect hipjoints(hip dysplasia), and defects in the nose/eye-section. In addition to this occurs several instigated characteristics of not always a kind too sound. The Skeleton of the dog is made of about 300 bones, of which some 20 is caudal vertebras. The dog lacks collar bone. The body is thus loading the suspension musculature in an upright position and fatiguates in a passive position, as well. The dog has a tongue which is equipped with papillae aimed backwards, which facilitates lapping fluid and it's stomach undertakes great flexibility to allow the digestion of indigestible food. The mating season of the bitch lasts for 2 to 3 weeks and occur a few times every year. After covering it normally takes about 60 days before she has her pups, which usually are more numerous for large breeds than for small. The pups should be nursed or fed in a correspondning way until 4 months of age, after that the pups should be fed 3 times a day until their respective growth are finished. The dog should be able to live in a dry place and have great freedom to move about. It must be given the opportunity to relieve itself at least three times a day.

   Records

T he english Mastiff and the St. Bernhard dog is regarded as the heaviest breeds. The individual record is held by an english Mastiff, Zorba, in 1989 weighing 155,6 kg. The smallest full grown dog, a Yorkshireterrier, weighed in 1944 merely 113 gram. The yorkshireterrier constitutes along with the Chihuaha and the toy poodle the smallest breeds.

   Kåre Andersson
 

  
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